飞飞 ​

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FX CRM—An Essential Tool for Forex Brokers

With the increase of the number of foreign exchange brokers, competition within the industry is exceedingly 外匯交易FX是什麼? fierce. What’s a forex broker to do to rise above the fray? Having great customer relationships[……]

What’s Causing the Rash of Mergers and Acquisitions in the FX Industry?

M&As have rocked the FX Space

Tightening regulations, lowering operating costs, projecting a global presence and maintaining credit access are some of the motivating factors in the FX industry to consolidate via mergers a[……]

Join the Crypto Revolution with Tier1FX and Fortex Technologies

Fortex announced today that DMA/STP broker Tier1FX now offers Crypto CFD trading on the Fortex platform. The most popular bitcoin revolution —Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum, Litecoin and Ripple—are now available to trade as CFD, and clients can jump in to this innovative and volatile market using th[……]

The Mexican Peso’s Wild Ride in 2018

What is guiding the sentiment in the currency market in Mexico these days? The answer is not straightforward, with many factors impacting the fluctuations the Mexican peso has experienced throughout 2018.

2018 Presidential Elections

Earlier this year, pre-election concerns about Andres Manuel[……]

Cryptocurrency. What’s it all about?

The Hot Cryptocurrency Market

A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses strong cryptography (secret codes) to secure financial tra[……]

Starting a foreign exchange brokerage? Here are 7 things to consider.

Forex opportunities and challenges

For both retail investors and institutions, the foreign exchange market is full of lucrative temptations we will explain some of them in this article. Some trad[……]

Financial Volatility in Argentina

Argentina started talks with the International Monetary Fund seeking financial rescue once again, as inflation soars and the currency sinks.

Let’s first explore the country’s background with some brief historical facts. The name “Argentina” comes from the Latin word for silver,[……]

What You Need to Know About Foreign Exchange Liquidity

“Liquidity” is one of the most talked about topics when it comes to currency trading.

What is liquidity?

When an asset can be easily converted into cash, the asset is liquid. From a financial perspective, “liquidity” refers to the ability of an asset being liquidated at a reasonable price or c[……]

Foreign Exchange White Label Platforms Explained

What is 外匯交易FX是什麼? a White Label?

A White Label forex platform enables a trading firm to put its logo and branding on a platform that was created by a technology firm. To the end customer, the white label product appears as though it has been manufactured by the trading firm itself. In other words, a tradin[……]

Mexico Presidential Elections and Other Factors Affecting the Currency Market

by Paulina Osorio

In the general elections in Mexico on 1 July 2018, voters elected a new President, along with hundreds of other national, state and local positions. It was one of the largest election days in Mexican history. A good portion of the 120 million inhabitants of Mexico eagerly antici[……]

The FX Market: Global Forces Affecting Volatility in 2016

While the foreign exchange market –the world’s biggest financial market—has been growing steadily for decades, events around the world this year have caused a high degree of volatility. Here are the top events of the year with ripple effects throughout the foreign exchange market.

1. Brexit Read more: The Economic Impact of Brexit

2. U.S. Election/US Market at All-Time High R ead more: What’s going on with the dollar?

3. OPEC Production Cut Read more: 外匯交易FX是什麼? Oil jumps to highest since mid-2015

7. Euro-U.S. Dollar Parity Read more: EURUSD Parity analysis and trade ideas

8. Japanese Yen Slide Read more: Lone analyst to call Yen slide validated


飞飞 ​

  • mqtt协议
  • 1 MQTT协议特点
    • 发布和订阅
    • QoS(Quality of Service levels)
    • 2.1 MQTT固定头
    • 2.2 MQTT可变头 / Variable header
    • 2.3 Payload消息体
    • 3.1 MQTT服务器搭建
    • 3.2 MQTT Client


    MQTT(Message Queuing Telemetry Transport,消息队列遥测传输协议),是一种基于 发布/订阅 ( publish/subscribe )模式的“轻量级”通讯协议,该协议构建于TCP/IP协议上,由IBM在1999年发布。


    1 MQTT协议特点


    MQTT协议当前版本为,2014年发布的MQTT v3.1.1。除标准版外,还有一个简化版 MQTT-SN ,该协议主要针对嵌入式设备,这些设备一般工作于TCP/IP网络,如:ZigBee。

    MQTT 与 HTTP 一样,MQTT 运行在传输控制协议/互联网协议 (TCP/IP) 堆栈之上。


    这是一种消息传递模式,消息不是直接从发送器发送到接收器(即点对点),而是由 MQTT server (或称为 MQTT 外匯交易FX是什麼? Broker)分发的。

    MQTT 服务器是发布-订阅架构的核心

    它可以非常简单地在Raspberry Pi或NAS等单板计算机上实现,当然也可以在大型机或 Internet 服务器上实现。

    客户端(也称为节点)是一种智能设备,如微控制器或具有 TCP/IP 堆栈和实现 MQTT 协议的软件的计算机。

    消息在允许过滤的主题下发布。主题是分层划分的 UTF-8 字符串。不同的主题级别用斜杠 / 作为分隔符号。

    • 光伏发电站是发布者( Publisher )。
    • 主要主题( 外匯交易FX是什麼? Topic )级别是 "PV" ,这个工厂发布两个子级别 "sunshine" 和 "data" ;
    • "PV/sunshine" 是一个布尔值(true/fault,也可以是 1/0),充电站需要它来知道是否应该装载电动汽车(仅在阳光普照时 :))。
    • 充电站(EVSE)是订阅者,订阅 "PV/sunshine" 从服务器获取信息。
    • "PV/data" 另一方面,以 kW 为单位传输工厂产生的瞬时功率,并且该主题可以例如通过计算机或平板电脑订阅,以生成一天内传输功率的图表。

    QoS(Quality of Service levels)

    服务质量是 MQTT 的一个重要特性。当我们使用 TCP/IP 时,连接已经在一定程度上受到保护。但是在无线网络中,中断和干扰很频繁,MQTT 在这里帮助避免信息丢失及其服务质量水平。这些级别在发布时使用。如果客户端发布到 MQTT 服务器,则客户端将是发送者,MQTT 服务器将是接收者。当MQTT服务器向客户端发布消息时,服务器是发送者,客户端是接收者。

    QoS 1 承诺消息将至少传送一次给订阅者。

    使用 QoS 2,我们保证消息仅传送到目的地一次。为此,带有唯一消息 ID 的消息会存储两次,首先来自发送者,然后是接收者。QoS 级别 2 在网络中具有最高的开销,因为在发送方和接收方之间需要两个流。

    2 MQTT 数据包结构

    • 固定头(Fixed header) ,存在于所有 MQTT 数据包中,表示数据包类型及数据包的分组类标识;
    • 可变头(Variable header) ,存在于部分 MQTT 数据包中,数据包类型决定了可变头是否存在及其具体内容;
    • 消息体(Payload) ,存在于部分 MQTT 数据包中,表示客户端收到的具体内容;

    2.1 MQTT 固定头

    固定头 存在于所有 MQTT 数据包中,其结构如下:

    MQTT 消息类型 / message type

    **位置:**byte 1, bits 7-4。


    标识位 / DUP

    **位置:**byte 1, bits 3-0。

    • DUP :发布消息的副本。用来在保证消息的可靠传输,如果设置为 1,则在下面的变长中增加MessageId,并且需要回复确认,以保证消息传输完成,但不能用于检测消息重复发送。
    • QoS 发布消息的服务质量(前面已经做过介绍),即:保证消息传递的次数
      • 00 :最多一次,即: 外匯交易FX是什麼?
      • 01 :至少一次,即:>=1
      • 10 :一次,即:=1
      • 11 :预留

      剩余长度(Remaining Length)

      2.2 MQTT 可变头 / Variable header

      Bit7 — 0


      2.3 Payload 消息体

      Payload 消息体是 MQTT 数据包的第三部分,CONNECT、SUBSCRIBE、SUBACK、UNSUBSCRIBE四种类型的消息 有消息体:

      • CONNECT 外匯交易FX是什麼? ,消息体内容主要是:客户端的ClientID、订阅的Topic、Message以及用户名和密码
      • SUBSCRIBE ,消息体内容是一系列的要订阅的主题以及 QoS 。
      • SUBACK ,消息体内容是服务器对于 SUBSCRIBE 所申请的主题及 QoS 进行确认和回复。
      • UNSUBSCRIBE ,消息体内容是要订阅的主题。

      3 环境搭建

      3.1 MQTT服务器搭建

      • Mosquitto: https:// mosquitto.org/
      • VerneMQ: https:// vernemq.com/
      • EMQTT: http:// emqtt.io/

      本文将使用 Mosquitoo 进行测试,进入到安装页面,下载自己电脑的系统所适配的程序;

      按住 Shift ,右键鼠标点击空白处,然后打开 Powershell ,正常打开一个终端软件即可;

      • 输入 ./mosquitto.exe -h 可以查看相应的帮助;
      • 输入 ./mosquitto.exe -p 10086 ,就开启了MQTT服务,监听的地址是 ,端口是 10086 ;

      3.2 MQTT Client

      这里我使用的是自己编译了一个 QT mqtt client 程序,是基于Qt的官方库进行编译的,下面打开这个软件,下一期简单介绍一下如何完成这个客户端,并设置好相应参数: