Study on Chinese Civil Servants’ Motivation Mechanism
However, Herzberg and McClelland contend 外汇交易技术分析 that, meeting some needs could motivate employees, while satisfying other needs could not. Herzberg (1959) found that the factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction and the factors that cause dissatisfaction are different. He called the former factors hygiene factors, and the latter factors intrinsic factors. The absence of hygiene factors will lead to dissatisfaction, while intrinsic factors give positive satisfaction and motivate employees. Hygiene factors which are external factors cannot act as motivators, but intrinsic factors can act as motivators. According to McClelland (1961)，the motivation of an individual roots in three dominant needs: the need for achievement, power and affiliation (Halachmi 外汇交易技术分析 外汇交易技术分析 & Krogt, 2005, pp. 477-482). Herzberg and McClelland’s theories give us a rough division of extrinsic and intrinsic factors of work situation, and suggested us to emphasize intrinsic factors to motivate employees。
Goal-setting theory also emphasizes intrinsic motivation. Edwin Locke and Gary Latham (1990) asserted that behaviors are mainly determined by the individual’s conscious goals and intentions. Goal 外汇交易技术分析 specificity, intensity, difficulty and commitment are four 外汇交易技术分析 key properties of goals. According to goal-setting theory, when goals are clear, not difficult but challenging, and the process of achieving goals is clear, people can be motivated (Halachmi & Krogt, 2005, p. 484)。
Vroom’s expectancy theory and Adams’s equity theory are different from the theories mentioned above. They focused on the process of motivation. Vroom’s expectancy theory describes the relationship among individual behaviors, efforts, performance and rewards. According to Vroom (1964)，individuals can be motivated if they believe that: efforts have relationship with performance; favorable performance will result in a desirable reward; the reward will meet an important need; the desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile. The product of valence, expectancy and instrumentality is the motivation (Halachmi & Krogt, 2005, 外汇交易技术分析 pp. 482-484)。
Adams’s equity theory tries explains relational satisfaction based on perceptions of fair/unfair distributions of resources within interpersonal relationships. Adams (1962) argued that employees look for to maintain equity between the inputs that they bring to a job and the rewards that they receive from it against the perceived inputs and rewards of others. People value fair treatment and they keep the fairness within the relationships of their co-workers and the organization. If they feel to be treated fairly, they will be motivated; if they feel to be treated unequally, they will reduce inputs or acquire more outcomes (Halachmi & Krogt, 2005, p. 483)。
These classical motivation theories have laid a solid foundation for further research on public-sector work motivation or public service motivation. Because of discrepancy of work environment, many scholars were interested in 外汇交易技术分析 the differences of motivation between the employees of 外汇交易技术分析 the public sector and private sector. Nonetheless, the nature and extent of differences between employees and organizations of the public and private sectors have 外汇交易技术分析 long been a controversial issue in academic areas. “Although much of the debate has centered on structural differences between public and private organizations, there has also been a long-standing interest
1.There is______8-year-old boy playing ______Chinese chess with his friend in the classroom.
2.My little cousin is a (n) ______boy and he always comes up with new ideas for class activities.
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5. Alice ______ for 15 years, yet she still doesn’t know what kind of man she ______.
A. has been married; has married with
B. has got married; married to
C. has been married; married
D. has married; has married to
6.—Would you mind going on a trip with us this Saturday?
—_______. I haven’t been outdoors these days. I can’t wait!
B. Certainly not
C. Sure, I’d love to
7. Go and visit 外汇交易技术分析 the hospital, ______ you’ll find that not everything can be bought with money.
8. —Good news! A company producing a special battery will be set up in Taizhou.
— True! A series of new policies(政策) have ______ the use of new energy cars around China recently.
9. —The 外汇交易技术分析 famous Notre Dame Cathedral(巴黎圣母院) caught a big fire on April 16, 2019. —What a pity! I think French people may have difficulty ______ it well.
10. —I’m so hungry. shall we begin the dinner, Mum?
—_______your father comes 外汇交易技术分析 from work, dear.
B. How long; Not until
C. How soon; Not until
D. How soon; Until
11. —I promise I’ll do my homework by myself and never copy others’ from now on.
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